Mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus and their babies are at increased risk of diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular complications [4, 5]and breastfeeding is reported to help reduce these risks [10, 11]. However, due to various barriers, breastfeeding rates are low among mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus . This study is important because in the current situation where people are adhering to social distancing due to COVID-19, a mobile application design has been developed to help mothers with diabetes mellitus who are vulnerable to infections and have difficulty to breastfeed. As of May 2022, apps for breastfeeding and managing gestational diabetes mellitus have been developed separately, and therefore mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus should use at least two apps for help with breastfeeding. The development of the BFGDM app allows mothers with the condition to use a single app, increasing accessibility and convenience.
To promote breastfeeding for mothers with diabetes mellitus, the app design was developed with reference to MASUN . In addition, to improve the user-friendliness of the application, the structure of the application and the user interface have been implemented according to the experiences and needs of four mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus, as well as the needs of users. determined by three women’s health nursing researchers (two professors and one clinical instructor), who were not application developers, using the method specified in MASUN . The methodology of involving the end users of the application to be developed in the process of implementing the user interface and creating a draft design before finalizing it has also been used in previous studies. [17, 25].
The method in this study can be used by researchers planning to create a mobile application user interface for target users with a small number of study participants over a relatively short period of time. . The BFGDM application was developed to promote breastfeeding among mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus by focusing on answering their questions and difficulties and stimulating community activity to increase motivation for breastfeeding by providing general breastfeeding information, how to breastfeed, breastfeeding diary, breast management techniques. , and breastfeeding questions and answers.
Despite delayed development of the mammary glands and physical discomfort during labor , mothers with diabetes mellitus who have breastfed said that with short-term suffering they were able to reduce feelings of guilt by providing their babies with the best nutrition. They listed specific knowledge and emotional support as factors for breastfeeding success. . This is consistent with a finding from the user needs survey conducted as part of this study, ie information needs. To provide information specific to breastfeeding, the BFGDM app has been designed to show characteristics of breast milk for mothers with diabetes mellitus, benefits of breastfeeding for mothers with the disease, stories of breastfeeding success, breastfeeding methods, breast massage techniques and managing breast problems in the breastfeeding information screen. It is believed that this detailed information will help app users to gain the knowledge they need to breastfeed their babies. In particular, videos demonstrating breastfeeding and breast management methods have been included in the app to help users learn the techniques easily. Additionally, the app has been designed to make it easy for users to gain expert knowledge and learn how to manage breast issues immediately by providing contact details for Breast Management Education Centers.
The data screen consisted of records of breastfeeding sessions and baby’s growth. The design components were created by combining the results from the user needs survey and the functions of existing parenting apps (Babytime: over 1 million downloads, 4.9 star rating; Parenting Diary: over 500,000 downloads, 4.8 star rating). The components should be useful for app users to monitor breastfeeding status and baby’s growth as well as self-management. The benefits of mobile apps include accessibility and the ability to self-monitor. Therefore, it is believed that the BFGDM app will motivate users to continue breastfeeding. The recording of breastfeeding sessions via a stopwatch was developed with an emphasis on user convenience, and the function only requires a simple operation. The advantages of using this feature are that users can check the previous breastfeeding time and the side used to track the interval between breastfeeding sessions and alternate breast.
The breastfeeding practice of mothers with diabetes mellitus has been reported to be influenced by their breastfeeding experience and self-efficacy. . The BFGDM app was designed to help increase breastfeeding self-efficacy in mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus by providing an app that uses a message board to share breastfeeding experiences on the screen of the community and successful breastfeeding stories on the breastfeeding information screen as well as to inspire users. to believe that they can also breastfeed successfully. Therefore, it is expected that, especially in the COVID-19 situation, in which remote interaction is encouraged, the use of the BFGDM app will provide emotional support, increased self-efficacy, self-help practices. self-management and experiences of other mothers with the same condition to promote the practice of breastfeeding among mothers with diabetes mellitus.
The BFGDM app is structured for users to easily get breastfeeding information through text, graphics and video; provides features that make it easy to share breastfeeding experiences; and provides links to breast management education centers. This app will be an important tool in promoting breastfeeding. It can be used to improve the breastfeeding knowledge, experience and self-efficacy of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus and minimize the impact of the disease on breastfeeding practice among them. . In the future, a follow-up study should be conducted to examine the effects of the BFGDM app by assessing breastfeeding knowledge, intention and success among mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus who use the app. .